Table of Contents
Cultural Learning Courses and Activities
- Learning Culture Through Purposeful Observation > a one-week online course offered regularly by Grow2Serve. MOP participants complete this course after they arrive on the field, but it is recommended for all cross-cultural workers.
- Exploring Culture: participant observation for deeper understanding > recommended by Beth E. “It is a catalog of cross-cultural adjustment self-directed activities that students can click on and go through on their own. There is also a section for coaches to think about how to use the activities with their language students”. From the website: “These guided discovery activities for language and culture learners are based on work done by Herb Purnell, Ph. D. (professor emeritus of applied linguistics and TESOL, Biola University) and adapted by Jean Sodemann, M. A. (International Language Learning Consultant, ret., TEAM) in consultation “with the Centre for Lifelong Learning.”
- Cultural Progress Report > used by SEND Spain
Cultural Resources Used For MOP 201
- Understanding Culture by Lloyd E. Kwast
- The Cultural Intelligence Assessment > a self-assessment that measures an individual’s capabilities to work and relate effectively with people from different nationalities, ethnicities, and cultural backgrounds
- Leading With Cultural Intelligence by David A. Livermore, Chapter 5
- Cultural Dimension: Me or We > video clip
Guided Discovery Program (GDP)
Each section below leads to a page that contains activities, powerpoint(s), and guided discussion guides to be used in cultural adaptation. The last link also includes a facilitators guide that could be used by an L&O Coordinator, team leader or anyone helping new workers adapt to cross-cultural living. These documents were created and adapted by SEND Russia and have been edited to be used in any cross-cultural situation over a 1-2 year period of time.
Created by SEND Russia and edited for any cross-cultural context
Understanding Culture & Personal Cultural Values
See this wiki page.
CQ Cultural Values
See this wiki page.
General Resources on cultural values
- Misreading Scripture with Western Eyes by E. Randolph Richards. Those who grew up in the west are quite often unaware that those in different cultures don't approach the Bible with the same assumptions that we do. This doesn't necessarily make us (or them) wrong, but it can lead to problems in communicating effectively. Since the Bible wasn't written from a Western perspective, it can hamper our own understanding of Scripture as well.
- Communicating Across Cultures by Stella Ting-Toomey
- Ministering Cross-Culturally by Lingenfelter & Mayers - the authors present a model to help cross-cultural workers identify their own basic values.
- Communicating Christ Cross-Culturally by David J. Hesselgrave. Recommended by Susanne Kuhnke. “The book helped me to understand why the Czech people have so much problem with the Roma (Gypsy) and refugees in their country. It helped me to look to different areas in cultures.”
- Effective Intercultural Communication (Encountering Mission): A Christian Perspective by A. Scott Moreau, Evvy Hay Campbell and Susan Greener. Reviewed by Gary Ridley on SEND U blog.
- Foreign to Familiar: A Guide to Understanding Hot- and Cold-climate Cultures by Lanier, Sarah A.
- Cultural Intelligence: Improving Your CQ to Engage Our Multicultural World by Livermore, David
Incarnational Ministry & Sacrifice
- "The Incarnation as the Foundation for Missions" by Ernest Manges
- “Sent like Jesus” (blog post by Gary Ridley)
- "Lifestyle Choices in Missions: What to Carry/What to Leave Behind" by Christine Jeske.
- ”The Missionary as Cultural Pilgrim“ by Marcus Dean. One way of thinking about the journey of a missionary is as a “cultural pilgrim.”
- Are missionaries called to be incarnational? by Ken Guenther
Dealing with Culture Stress
- What Missionaries ought to Know About Culture Stress > by Ronald L. Koteskey
- Am I still Me? > by Lois Dodds., discussing how the stresses that are created by a cross-cultural move often result in a deep identity crisis.
- Wealth and Piety: Middle Eastern Perspectives for Expat Workers by Karen L.H. Shaw. Reviewed by Jenny Baker on the SEND U blog.
Models of cultural adjustment
- A popular model or understanding of cultural adjustment is the U-curve “4 Stages of Adjustment”. This model was popularized by anthropologist Kalvero Oberg (1901-1973), one of the first to talk about culture shock. It has been widely used in missionary training.
- But in the last few years, this model has been criticized for not being adequately grounded in research. See Darlene Jovellanos' article on the SEND blog about this rethinking of the U-curve model. Darlene suggests that there are other models that we might want to consider. Take a look at the Bennett Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity, and then watch this presentation about this model.
Assessments of Acculturation
- CQ Assessment > See this wiki page.
- CernySmith Assessments (CSA) are online assessments that measure stress in 5 major areas: Organizational, Cross-Cultural, Relational, Personal, and Behavioral as it relates to the adjustment and well being of people living and working cross-culturally. Dave & JoAnn Loewen in the US Office administer this assessment to SEND missionaries.
- IDI This is an intercultural development inventory widely used by profit and not-for-profit organizations worldwide. SEND does not presently use this program.
- Core Cultural Values and Culture Mapping. This is a quick self-assessment to understand your own core values. Used by SEND Russia.
For information on ethnography, please go to this page